Tuesday, September 30, 2008

Baodun culture

The Baodun culture was a Neolithic culture centered on the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan, China. Recently discovered, six settlements from the culture have been found: the type site at Baodun in Xinjin County, the site at Mangcheng in Dujiangyan City, the site at Yufu in Wenjiang County, the site at Zizhu in Chongzhou, the site at Shuanghe in Chongzhou and the site in Pi County. The type site at Baodun is the largest, and covers an area of around 600,000 m?. All of the settlements straddled the . The settlement walls were covered with pebbles, a feature unique to the Baodun culture. The pottery from the culture share some similarities with Sanxingdui.

Zhaobaogou culture

The Zhaobaogou culture was a Neolithic culture in northeast China, found primarily in the Luan River valley in Inner Mongolia and northern Hebei. The culture produced sand-tempered, incised pottery vessels with geometric and zoomorphic designs. The culture also produced stone and clay human figurines.

The type site at Zhaobaogou, excavated in 1986, was discovered in Aohan Banner, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia. The site covers an area of around 90,000 m? .

Yangshao culture

The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the central Yellow River in China. The Yangshao culture is dated from around 5000 BC to 3000 BC. The culture is named after Yangshao, the first excavated representative village of this culture, which was discovered in 1921 in Henan Province. The culture flourished mainly in the provinces of Henan, Shaanxi and Shanxi.


The subsistence practices of Yangshao people were varied. They cultivated millet extensively; some villages also cultivated wheat or rice. The exact nature of Yangshao agriculture -- small-scale slash-and-burn cultivation versus intensive agriculture in permanent fields, is currently matter of debate. However, Middle Yangshao settlements such as Jiangzhi contain raised floor buildings that may have been used for the storage of surplus grains. They kept such animals as pigs and dogs, as well as sheep, goats, and cattle, but much of their meat came from hunting and fishing. Their stone tools were polished and highly specialized. The Yangshao people may also have practiced an early form of .


The Yangshao culture is well-known for its painted pottery. Yangshao artisans created fine white, red, and black painted pottery with human facial, animal, and geometric designs. Unlike the later Longshan culture, the Yangshao culture did not use pottery wheels in pottery-making. Excavations found that children were buried in painted pottery jars.

Archaeological sites

The archaeological site of Banpo village, near Xi'an, is one of the best-known ditch-enclosed settlements of the Yangshao culture. Another major settlement called Jiangzhai was excavated out to its limits, and archaeologists found that it was completely surrounded by a ring-ditch. Both Banpo and Jiangzhai also yielded controversial incised marks on pottery which a few have interpreted as numerals or perhaps precursors to the Chinese script. However, such conclusions may be premature .


Among the numerous overlapping phases of the Yangshao culture, the most prominent phases, typified by differing styles of pottery, include:
* Banpo phase, approximately 4800 BC to 4200 BC, central plane
* Miaodigou phase, circa 4000 BC to 3000 BC, successor to Banpo
* phase, approximately 3300 BC to 2000 BC, in Gansu, Qinghai
* Banshan phase, approximately 2700 BC to 2300 BC, successor to Majiayao
* phase, approximately 2400 BC to 2000 BC

Xinle culture

The Xinle Civilization was a Neolithic culture in northeast China, found primarily around the lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula in Liaoning. The culture showed evidence of millet cultivation and pig domestication. The type site at Xinle was discovered in the Huanggu District of Shenyang.

It is named after an old inn, in which grounds the remains were first discovered.


The site of the ancient settlement was discovered in the grounds of an old accommodation block for an electrical factory. The accommodation block was called the Xinle Dormitory and hence the discovery was named the Xinle Relic. When it was discovered that the settlement was that of a hitherto unknown civilization, the whole civilization was named after the relic and hence became known as the Xinle civilization. Although more recent discoveries in nearby areas have been extremely significant, especially one in Xinmin, the original name has prevailed.


In 1973, excavations at the site discovered evidence for some 40 neolithic houses. Artefacts uncovered during the dig included stone tools, pottery, jade, bone tools, wood carvings and refined coal.

In 1978, another dig uncovered yet more artefacts, including one wooden carving that was some 7200 years old, presumably a type of totem worshipped by the clan. No other find in the whole of Shenyang has been older, the find is also one of the oldest wooden carvings found anywhere in the world.

The excavations also discovered two tombs from 1000 years ago.


In 1984 the Museum of the Xinle Civilization was founded.

The museum is divided into two sections, north and south. The southern section contains displays of the various artefacts unearthed during the various excavations that have taken place on 44 acre site. The northern section contains a reconstruction of a 7000 year old Xinle village. Some of the houses in the settlement contain representations of life 7000 years ago.


Xinglongwa culture

The Xinglongwa culture was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China, found mainly around the Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border. It is the earliest archaeological culture in China to feature jade objects and to depict . Xinglongwa pottery was primarily cylindrical, and baked at low temperatures.

The Xinglongwa culture showed several signs of communal planning. At three Xinglongwa sites, houses were built in rows. Several Xinglongwa sites also featured a large central building. In addition, several Xinglongwa sites were surrounded by ditches.

The type site at Xinglongwa is located on the southwest side of a hill at Aohan Banner, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia; the site is named after a village 1.3 km to the southeast of the site. 120 pit-houses were discovered at Xinglongwa. Each home had a hearth at its center. Xinglongwa also featured a large building in the center of the village. Xinglongwa is the earliest discovered site in China to be surrounded by a ditch. Xinglongwa also featured an unusual burial custom, as some bodies were buried directly under the houses. Like other Xinglongwa sites, jade objects were also discovered. In the most lavish grave, a man was buried with a pair of pigs, as well as jade objects.

The recently discovered site at Xinglonggou is the only site of the culture to show evidence of any sort of agriculture, with evidence of millet remains.

Qujialing culture

The Qujialing culture was a Neolithic civilisation centered primarily around the middle Yangtze River region in Hubei and Hunan, China. The culture succeeded the Daxi culture and reached southern Shaanxi, northern Jiangxi and southwest Henan. Artefact types unique to the culture include ceramic balls and painted spindle whorls; the later was inherited by the succeeding Shijiahe culture.

The type site at Qujialing was discovered in Jingshan County, Hubei, China. The site was excavated from 1955 to 1957. The remains of chickens, dogs, pigs and sheep were discovered at the site. The remains of fish were discovered in ten storage pits. Egg shell pottery and tripods were also discovered at the site.

Many of the artefacts from the culture are located in the Hubei Provincial Museum.

Prehistoric Beifudi site

The Prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, China, is the excavation of a recently discovered prehistoric Neolithic village that Chinese archaeologists say is one of the most important sites found so far.

This archaeological site was voted Number One in the Top Ten most outstanding archaeological findings in 2004 by Chinese archaeologists in their annual poll.


The most significant discovery in the first phase of the site's excavation is the large number of pottery masks in the shape of human and animal faces, the oldest extant carvings to date. A dozen carved clay masks, in cat, monkey and pig as well as human likenesses, have been unearthed at Beifudi. One mask of a human face has a mouth and nose in carved relief and the eyes are pierced out. The first engraved clay artifacts ever found in ruins of this age, the masks add several millennia to China’s history of . Although the beliefs of these Neolithic people are not known, the early Chinese almost certainly performed ritual ceremonial sacrifices and burned burials on the raised platforms, as both human and animal burials have been found. The masks are believed to be part of the ritual performances accompanying sacrifices and burials.

Excavations in the second phase, dating to 6500–7000 BC include pottery and stone tools, s and small-mouth-double-handled pots.


Drawing on archaeology, geology and anthropology, modern scholars do not see the origins of the Chinese civilization or Chinese history as one story but rather the history of the interactions of many different cultures and many different ethnic groups that influenced each other's development. As the prehistoric Beifudi site is in northern China where the climate is drier than in the south, it is likely that this culture cultivated millet although no direct evidence of cultivation has been found. The finding of stone tools for food processing does not reliably prove that the culture had developed agriculture as such tools were used before the cultivation of crops.

The importance of the prehistoric Beifudi site lies in its potential to provide archaeological information on the beliefs and ceremonial practices of this ancient culture through the ancient carved artifacts found there, as well as further understanding of the beginnings of Chinese architecture.

Pengtoushan culture

The Pengtoushan culture was a Neolithic culture centered primarily around the central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan, China. Pengtoushan was roughly contemporaneous with its northern neighbor, the Peiligang culture. The two primary examples of Pengtoushan culture are the type site at Pengtoushan and the later site at Bashidang.

The type site at Pengtoushan was discovered in Li County, Hunan, China. The site is the earliest permanently settled village yet discovered in China. The site was excavated in 1988. Pengtoushan has been difficult to date accurately, with a large variability in dates ranging from 9000 BC to 5500 BC. Cord-marked pottery was discovered among the burial goods.

At Pengtoushan, the remains of rice from around 7000 BC were found, which may represent the earliest evidence for domesticated rice in China. The size of the Pengtoushan rice was larger than the size of naturally-occurring, wild rice; however, Pengtoushan lacked evidence of tools used in cultivating rice. Although not found at Pengtoushan, rice-cultivating tools were found in later sites associated with the Pengtoushan culture.

Peiligang culture

The Peiligang culture is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities in the in Henan Province, China. The culture existed from 7000 BC to 5000 BC. Over 70 sites have been identified with the Peiligang culture. The culture is named after the site discovered in 1977 at Peiligang . Archaeologists think that the Peiligang culture was egalitarian, with little political organization.

The culture practiced agriculture in the form of cultivating millet and animal husbandry in the form of raising pigs. The culture is also one of the oldest in ancient China to make pottery.

The site at Jiahu is one of the earliest sites associated with this culture.

Majiayao culture

The Majiayao culture is a name given by to a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in the upper Yellow River region in Gansu and Qinghai, China. The culture existed from 3100 BC to 2700 BC. The earliest discoveries of copper and bronze objects in China occur at Majiayao sites.

Majiabang culture

The Majiabang culture was a Neolithic culture that existed at the mouth of the Yangtze River, primarily around the area and north of Hangzhou Bay in China. The culture was spread throughout southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang from around 5000 BC to 3000 BC. Initially, archaeologists had considered the Majiabang sites and sites in northern Jiangsu to be part of the same culture, naming it the ''Qingliangang culture''. Archaeologists later realized that the northern Jiangsu sites were of the Dawenkou culture and renamed the southern Jiangsu sites as the Majiabang culture. The Majiabang culture coexisted with the Hemudu culture for over a thousand years as two separate and distinct cultures, with cultural transmissions between the two cultures.

Majiabang people cultivated rice. At Caoxieshan, a site of the Majiabang culture, archaeologists excavated . However, remains excavated from Majiabang archaeological sites indicated that people had domesticated pigs. In addition, the remain of and roe deer have been found, showing that people were not totally reliant on agricultural production. Archaeological sites also bear evidence that Majiabang people produced jade ornaments.

Longshan culture

Longshan culture was a late Neolithic culture in China, centered on the central and lower Yellow River and dated from about 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Longshan culture is named after Longshan of eastern Jinan in Shandong Province, the first find and excavated site of this culture.

The distinctive feature of Longshan culture was the high level of skill in , including the use of pottery wheels. Longshan culture was noted for its highly polished black pottery . This type of thin-walled and polished black pottery has also been discovered in the Yangzi River valley and as far as the southeastern coast of China proper. It is a clear indication that neolithic agricultural sub-groups of the greater Longshan Culture had spread out across China proper.

Life during the Longshan culture marked a transition to the establishment of , as rammed earth walls and moats began to appear; the site at Taosi is the largest walled Longshan settlement. Rice cultivation was clearly established by that time. Small-scale production of silk by raising and domesticating ''bombyx mori'' in early sericulture was also known.
A variety of geographic regions of China are involved among the various sub-periods of the Longshan civilisation, particularly for the Late Longshan period. For example middle reaches of the Jing River and Wei River evince settlement known as the Shaanxi Longshan. The Wei River valley would participate in key historic events in China as the North Silk Road developed in that same area.

List of Neolithic cultures of China

This is a list of Neolithic cultures of China that have been discovered by archaeologists. They are sorted in chronological order from the earliest founding to the latest arnd are followed by a schematic visualization of these cultures.

List of Neolithic cultures of China

Schematic outline

These cultures are brought together schematically for the period 7,000 to 1,500 BCE. Neolithic cultures remain unmarked and Bronze Age cultures are marked with *. There are many differences in opinion by dating these cultures, so the dates chosen here are tentative:

For this schematic outline of its neolithic cultures China has been divided into the following nine parts:
#Northeast China: Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning.
#Northwest China : Gansu, Qinghai and western part of Shaanxi.
#North-central China : Shanxi, Hebei, western part of Henan and eastern part of Shaanxi. This is called the North China Plain, until recently seen as where Chinese civilization originated from and spread out along the country.
#Eastern China : Shandong, Anhui, northern part of Jiangsu and eastern part Henan.
#East-south-eastern China : Zhejiang and biggest part of Jiangsu.
#South-central China : Hubei and northern part of Hunan.
#Sichuan and upper Yangtze.
#Southeast China: Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, southern part of Hunan, lower Red River in the northern part of Vietnam and the island of Taiwan.
#Southwest China: Yunnan and Guizhou.


*Chang Kwang-chih, ''The Archaeology of Ancient China'', Yale University Press: New Haven, 1986 , ISBN 0-300-03784-8.
*Loewe, Michael en Edward L. Shaughnessy , ''The Cambridge History of Ancient China. From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C.'', Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 1999, ISBN 0-521-47030-7.
*Higham, Charles, ''The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia'', Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 1996, ISBN 0-521-49660-8.
*Li Liu,''The Chinese Neolithic. Trajectories to Early States'', Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 2004, ISBN 0-521-81184-8.
*Maisels, Charles Keith, ''Early Civilizations of the Old World. The Formative Histories of Egypt, The Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China'', Routledge: Londen 1999, ISBN 0-415-10976-0.
*Scarre, Chris , ''The Human Past. World Prehistory & the Development of Human Societies'', Thames & Hudson: Londen 2005, ISBN 0-500-28531-4.
::chapter 7, Higham, Charles, 'East Asian Agriculture and Its Impact', p.234-264.
::chapter 15,Higham, Charles, 'Complex Societies of East and Southeast Asia', p.552-594


Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic Yellow River settlement based in the central plains of ancient China, modern Wuyang, Henan Province. Archaeologists consider the site to be one of the earliest examples of the Peiligang culture. Settled from 7000 to 5800 BC, the site was later flooded and abandoned. The settlement at Jiahu was surrounded by a moat and covered an area of 55,000 square metres. Discovered by Zhu Zhi in 1962, extensive excavation of the site did not occur until much later. Most of the site has still not yet been excavated.

Archaeologists have divided Jiahu into three distinct phases. The oldest phase ranges from 7000 to 6600 BC. The middle phase ranges from 6600 to 6200 BC. The last phase ranges from 6200 to 5800 BC. The last two phases correspond to the Peiligang culture, while the earliest phase is unique to Jiahu.

The inhabitants of Jiahu cultivated foxtail millet and rice. While millet cultivation is common among the Peiligang culture, rice cultivation at Jiahu is unique. Jiahu rice cultivation is one of the earliest found, and the most northerly found at such an early stage in history.

Over 300 burials have been unearthed at Jiahu, accompanied by burial offerings. Burial objects range from pottery to tortoise shells. One of the most significant offerings discovered were playable tonal . The flutes were made from Red-crowned Crane wing bones. The oldest phase at Jiahu only contains two flutes, which are tetratonic and pentatonic. The middle phase at Jiahu contains several flutes, including an interesting pair of hexatonic flutes. One of the flutes was broken, and the other flute seems to be a replica of the first flute. The second flute shows evidence of adjustments made to match the pitch of the first flute. Innovations in the last phase include the use of heptatonic flutes.

Jiahu yielded some of the oldest pottery yet found in Neolithic China. Scientists from the University of Pennsylvania applied chemical analysis to pottery jars from Jiahu and found evidence of alcohol fermented from rice, honey and . Researchers hypothesize that the alcohol was fermented by the process of mold saccharification.

At Jiahu, archaeologists identified eleven markings Jiahu script, nine on tortoise shells and two on bone, as possible evidence for . The markings correspond to the middle phase. Some of the markings are quite similar to later Chinese characters; two of the most intriguing marks appear to be similar to later characters for ''eye'' and ''sun'' . However, correspondence of many early non-writing symbols with the Shang dynasty period oracle bone writing is to be expected, given the pictographic flavor of many of the Shang characters.

Houli culture

The Houli culture was a Neolithic culture in Shandong, China. The people of the culture lived in square, semi-subterranean houses. Archaeological evidence shows that domesticated dogs and pigs were used. The type site at Houli was discovered in the Linzi District of Shandong and was excavated from 1989 to 1990. The culture was followed by the Beixin culture.

Evidence of the earliest rice cultivation in the Yellow River basin came from carbonized rice grains from the Yuezhuang site in Jinan, Shandong. The carbonized rice was dated using radiocarbon dating to 7050±80. Archaeologists also excavated millet from the Yuezhuang site.

Hongshan culture

The Hongshan culture was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China. Hongshan sites have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning and Hebei, and dated from about 4700 BC to 2900 BC.

The culture is named after Hongshanhou , a site in Hongshan District, Hongshan District, Chifeng. The Hongshanhou site was discovered by the Japanese archaeologist Torii Ryūzō in 1908 and extensively excavated in 1935 by Hamada Kosaku and Mizuno Seiichi.

Existence of an early culture in the North undermines the Chinese nationalistic concept of cultural homogenity pushed for political ends.


Hongshan grave goods include some of the earliest known examples of Chinese jade working; the Hongshan culture is known for its jade pig dragons. Clay figurines, including figurines of pregnant women, are also found throughout Hongshan sites.


Small copper rings were excavated.


The archaeological site at Niuheliang is a unique ritual complex associated with the Hongshan culture.

Excavators have discovered an underground temple complex -- which included an altar -- and also cairns in Niuheliang. The temple was constructed of stone platforms, with painted walls. Included on its walls are mural paintings.

The existence of complex trading networks and monumental architecture point to the existence of a "chiefdom" in these communies.

Painted pottery was also discovered within the temple.

Cairns were discovered atop two nearby two hills, with either round or square stepped tombs, made of piled limestone. Tombed inside were sculptures of s and tortoises. The presence of both round and square shapes at Hongshan culture ceremonial centers suggests an early presence of the gaitian cosmography .

Early Feng shui relied on astronomy to find correlations between humans and the universe.

Hemudu culture

The Hemudu culture was a Neolithic culture that flourished just south of the Hangzhou Bay in Jiangnan in modern Yuyao, Zhejiang, China. The site at Hemudu was discovered in 1973. Hemudu sites were also discovered on the islands of Zhoushan.

Material Culture

The Hemudu culture co-existed with the Majiabang culture as two separate and distinct cultures, with cultural transmissions between the two. Two major floods caused the nearby Yaojiang River to change its course and inundated the soil with , forcing the people of Hemudu to abandon its settlements. The Hemudu people lived in long, stilt houses.

The Hemudu culture is one of the earliest cultures to cultivate rice. Most of the artifacts discovered at Hemudu consist of animal bones, exemplified by hoes made of shoulder bones used for cultivating rice.

The culture also produced lacquer wood. The remains of various plants, including water caltrop, ''Nelumbo nucifera'', acorns, beans, ''Gorgon euryale'' and , were found at Hemudu. The Hemudu people likely domesticated pigs, and dogs. The people at Hemudu also fished and hunted, as evidence by the remains of bone harpoons and bows and arrowheads. Music instruments, such as bone whistles and wooden drums, were also found at Hemudu.

The culture produced a thick, porous pottery. The distinct pottery was typically black and made with charcoal powder. Plant and geometric designs were commonly painted onto the pottery; the pottery was sometimes also cord-marked. The culture also produced carved jade ornaments, carved ivory artifacts and small, clay figurines.


Fossilized amoeboids and pollen suggests Hemudu culture emerged and developed in the middle of the Holocene Climatic Optimum. A study of a sea-level highstand in the Ningshao Plain from 7000 – 5000 BP shows that there may have been stabilized lower sea levels at this time followed by, from 5000 to 3900 BP, frequent flooding.

Daxi culture

The Daxi culture was a Neolithic culture centered in the Three Gorges region, around the middle Yangtze River, China. The culture ranged from western Hubei to eastern Sichuan and the Pearl River Delta. The site at Daxi, located in the Qutang Gorge around Wushan, Chongqing, was discovered by Nels C. Nelson in the 1920s. Many key archaeological sites from the Daxi culture, including the site at Daxi, will be inundated or destroyed after the completion of the Three Gorges Dam.

Daxi sites are typified by the presence of ''dou'' , white ''pan'' , and red pottery. The Daxi people cultivated rice extensively. Daxi sites were some of the earliest in China to show evidence of moats and walled settlements.

The Daxi culture showed evidence of cultural interactions with the Yangtze River Delta region. The white ''pan'' artefacts from the culture were discovered at several Yangtze River Delta sites, including the type site at . Conversely, jade artefacts at Daxi sites show possible influence from the Yangtze River Delta region. The Daxi culture was followed by the Qujialing culture.

Dawenkou culture

The Dawenkou culture is a name given by s to a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in Shandong, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, China. The culture existed from 4100 BC to 2600 BC, co-existing with the Yangshao culture. Turquoise, jade and ivory artefacts are commonly found at Dawenkou sites. The earliest examples of alligator drums appear at Dawenkou sites.

Archaeologists commonly divide the culture into three phases: the early phase , the middle phase and the late phase . Based on the evidence from grave goods, the early phase was highly egalitarian. The phase is typified by the presence of individually designed, long-stemmed cups . Graves built with earthern ledges became increasingly common during the latter parts of the early phase. During the middle phase, grave goods began to emphasize quantity over diversity. During the late phase, wooden coffins began to appear in Dawenkou burials. The culture became increasingly stratified, as some graves contained no grave goods while others contained a large quantity of grave goods.

The type site at Dawenkou, located in Tai'an, Shandong, was excavated in 1959, 1974 and 1978. Only the middle layer at Dawenkou is associated with the Dawenkou culture, as the earliest layer corresponds to the Beixin culture and the latest layer corresponds to the early Shandong variant of the Longshan culture.

Dadiwan culture

The Dadiwan culture was a Neolithic culture found primarily in Gansu and western Shaanxi, China. The culture takes its name from the earliest layer found at the type site at Dadiwan. The remains of millet and pigs were found in sites associated with the culture. The culture shared several similarities with the and Peiligang cultures.

The type site at Dadiwan was discovered at Qin'an County, Gansu and excavated from 1975 to 1984. Dadiwan was built on a mountain slope south of the Qingshui River near the Wei River. The oldest layer of the site is from the Dadiwan culture, the middle layer is from the Yangshao culture and the youngest layer is from the Longshan culture.

The foundation of a large building, measuring 290 m? and 420 m? when including the outer courtyard, was discovered at Dadiwan. The building, known as F901, is described by Chinese archaeologists as a communal meeting hall. The building was built on an elevated rammed earth foundation, which was then layered with burnt clay.

Cishan culture

The Cishan culture was a Neolithic Yellow River culture in northern China, centered primarily around southern Hebei. The Cishan culture was based on millet farming. Common artifacts from the culture include stone grinders, stone sickles and tripod pottery.

Since the culture shared many similarities with its southern neighbor, the Peiligang culture, both cultures are sometimes referred to together as the Cishan-Peiligang culture or Peiligang-Cishan culture. The Cishan culture also shared several similarities with its eastern neighbor, the Beixin culture.

The type site at Cishan is located in Wu'an, Hebei, China. The site covered an area of around 80,000 m?. The houses at Cishan were semi-subterranean and round. The site showed evidence of domesticated pigs, dogs and chicken, with pigs providing the primary source of meat. Fish was also an important part of the diet at Cishan.

Over 500 subterranean storage pits were discovered at Cishan. These pits were used to store millet. The largest pits were 5 meters deep and capable of storing up to 1000 kg of millet.

Beixin culture

The Beixin culture was a Neolithic culture in Shandong, China. 50 sites from the culture have been discovered. The culture showed evidence of millet cultivation and domestication.

The type site at Beixin was discovered in Tengzhou, Shandong, China. The site was excavated from 1978 to 1979.