Longshan culture was a late Neolithic culture in China, centered on the central and lower Yellow River and dated from about 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Longshan culture is named after Longshan of eastern Jinan in Shandong Province, the first find and excavated site of this culture.
The distinctive feature of Longshan culture was the high level of skill in , including the use of pottery wheels. Longshan culture was noted for its highly polished black pottery . This type of thin-walled and polished black pottery has also been discovered in the Yangzi River valley and as far as the southeastern coast of China proper. It is a clear indication that neolithic agricultural sub-groups of the greater Longshan Culture had spread out across China proper.
Life during the Longshan culture marked a transition to the establishment of , as rammed earth walls and moats began to appear; the site at Taosi is the largest walled Longshan settlement. Rice cultivation was clearly established by that time. Small-scale production of silk by raising and domesticating ''bombyx mori'' in early sericulture was also known.
A variety of geographic regions of China are involved among the various sub-periods of the Longshan civilisation, particularly for the Late Longshan period. For example middle reaches of the Jing River and Wei River evince settlement known as the Shaanxi Longshan. The Wei River valley would participate in key historic events in China as the North Silk Road developed in that same area.